August 30, 2022 adminMale Infertility

Fertility is not always as simple & straightforward as it appears. The natural process of conception is very dynamic and well-regulated by nature for males & Females. The gametes (sperm and eggs) of both partners are equally responsible for conception & Male fertility has assumed equal status to female infertility.

In this blog, we will address the key points related to male infertility. To understand it, let’s go to the basics of male fertility. For a couple to conceive, both male & female reproductive systems should function properly

A male reproductive system has the following functions.

The testes should produce normal functional sperm as well as the hormone testosterone.

The ability to achieve an erection for sexual intercourse.

The sperm that are produced should have proper structure & movement

Sperms should move to the fallopian tubes to fertilise the eggs.

The male reproductive system functions to manufacture, store and transport sperm. FSH (Follicular Stimulating Hormones & testosterone regulate sperm production. Like sperms, testosterone is produced in both testicles.

There are many factors that cause Male infertility, right from production to transport of sperm in the fallopian tubes is a lengthy process & any obstacles in this process can cause male infertility.

It may be due to,

Less production of sperm by testicles.

Genetic factors that create abnormal sperms

Lifestyle impacts sperm production (smoking, alcohol, drugs)

Long-term illnesses, Hormonal imbalances

All these issues affect the number & quality of sperms.

There are other conditions which cause male infertility like,

  1. Azoospermia: chances of fathering a child are non-existent when there are no sperms in the ejaculate.10 to 15% of cases of male infertility are due to this. Azoospermia means the absence of sperms in ejaculate. It may be due to obstruction when there is a blockage which prevents sperm entry in the ejaculate. “nonobstructive simple means lesser sperm production.

Azoospermia may be caused by many factors like hormonal deficiencies and infections. One such example is vasectomy. This is the condition caused by cutting and sealing the vas deference. Due to this, sperms are blocked and prevent pregnancy. Vasectomies can often be reversed (In 70% of cases, sperms do reappear), but in most of the cases, sperm antibodies are seen which reduce the ability of sperms.

Low success rates with reversal of vasectomy are due to high antibodies, time length of vasectomy and amount of vas removal. These all factors contribute to male infertility to some extent.

  1. Erectile Dysfunction: this is the condition where a penis is unable to keep or sustain an erection during sexual intercourse. There are situations where the semen sample for Assisted Reproductive Technology treatment could not be produced.

Occasional erectile dysfunction does happen. This may be due to stress or nutritional or lifestyle change. Frequent erectile dysfunction can be a sign of health problems which need prompt attention. It may be due to a relationship or emotional concern which may require professional help.

Incidences of erectile dysfunction increase with age, which contribute to male infertility.

  1. Retrograde Ejaculation: In this situation, sperm & semen content may be normal but instead of leaving the penis, it flows back into the bladder.

There are many such situations mentioned above, sperms need to be retrieved with surgery. Such sperms may be immature or not developed fully to fertilize the eggs, the Procedure called Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) or Intra cytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) treatment is used.

Recent finding about sperm is an eye-opener. Till date, it was thought that the best swimmer sperm is ideal for making a baby. The 1st sperm to meet the egg must be of the best quality. Now we are aware, that having a good count and motility of sperms does not conform to the best quality sperms.

The sperm factory never closes but the quality of sperm goes down. The process of manufacturing sperms happens over 3 months and happens in cycles. They are the smallest cells of the body. The composition of sperm is dependent upon, the food we eat, drinks we consume & health conditions, much before the issue of fertility treatment sets in.

Do you know, which factors affect the quality of sperm?


Diet we consume, Lifestyle choices of individuals (like smoking, alcohol, drugs etc.) Medical health conditions like obesity, diabetes, hypertension etc. Environmental factors (e.g. exposure to chemicals, toxins, heat) Recent illness (prior, during or after 3 months of treatment) which cause high fevers, Body Mass Index (BMI) Age Genetics

All these factors can have negative effects on sperm health due to hormonal imbalances in the testes and put additional stress on the body. The continuous process of production of these cells & recycling the same creates free radicals. In a limited manner, these free radicals protect the cells & human health. Excess of these free radicals, however, can cause damage to the sperms.

Science has understood the importance of a healthy lifestyle to minimize the overproduction of free radicals.

Poor health of sperms results in Poor fertilization, Poor development of embryos, birth defects, and miscarriages.

The very obvious question is how to improve sperm health.

  1. By eating right with balanced, easy-to-digest food
  2. Maintaining the Ideal body weight.
  3. Keeping away from direct exposure to heat & Sedentary lifestyle.
  4. Use of proven nutritional supplements like Zinc, selenium, magnesium-rich substances or fortified supplements

In a nutshell, sperm health is equally as important as female health; a healthy diet and lifestyle changes along with nutritional supplements are of great help in improving sperm health. However, these changes must be started at least three months before conception or fertility treatment.

These simple measures will ensure, that the best quality DNA is generated and passed on to the next generations to come.

As science is evolving & a lot of diagnostic tests are in place for early detection. Simple non-invasive blood tests can be of immense help in overcoming male infertility.

Pearl women’s hospital & Yash IVF has designed the screening & treatment protocol for Azoospermia & other causes of  Male infertility.  We have specially designed Guidelines for modern fertility  techniques like ICSI, IMSI, TESA, and PESA.


Contrary to popular conception, in couples facing difficulty in conceiving successfully, the male partner is responsible almost 30% of the time. Difficult to believe, isn’t it, that male infertility is almost as frequent an occurrence as female infertility? But true nevertheless. It means that responsibility for becoming parents lies almost equally with both partners and they have to work equally effectively to achieve their goal of starting a family.


It helps if both lead a lifestyle that is healthy and full of activities that will negate the stress of personal and professional commitments. Healthy eating, remaining physically fit, especially avoiding putting on unnecessary weight, and avoiding drinks & tobacco in all forms is a prerequisites when you are looking at commencing a family.


Despite this, if natural conception is not happening, irrespective of unprotected sex for a year or so, one needs to take the help of a Fertility expert.


In this article let us focus on the father-to-be, as much has already been written about female fertility.


Let’s get started on the roller coaster journey of fatherhood with well-researched data gathered from reputed journals, WHO publications & ongoing research.


Let’s start with a few important topics.


1. How soon you should prepare for fatherhood?


           Age & related fertility concerns:  it is commonly known, that females are born with all the eggs they could ever have and a sharp decline is shown over the ages.


Even though, unlike females, males can reproduce the sperms well after retirement age, the quality of the sperms reduces as men age. It is well-known fact that partners of aged males take longer to get pregnant than the younger ones. The increased chances of miscarriages along with autism or other related mental health issues are often seen with advancing-aged fathers.


So starting early is always a wiser decision.


Sooner is better than later.




2. Lifestyle modifications with smoking habits:


       Does smoking kill dreams? More than dreams, it kills the desire to be the one.

“A pioneering study on this subject was carried out by the team of Dr Julian Laubenthal, from the School of Life Sciences at the University of Bradford in the UK, who collected blood and sperm from fathers during the period of conception, and the blood from babies at birth.”

Then, the team performed a DNA analysis of the samples for risk of cancer. The researchers found a detrimental change in the DNA of babies whose fathers smoked.”

What it simply means, is that smoking has a powerfully negative effect on a baby’s health & more risk children carry for such diseases.

The smoke from cigars has the potential to the health of the sperm. Cigar smoke can alter the sperm structure, and motility and make them less competent. These epigenetic changes cause serious concerns like leukaemia and heart problems for children born to fathers who smoke.

There is no safe limit for smoking & every puff has the potential to damage the health of self, others with passive smoking & the unborn child, and lifetime damage to vital organs.

Quitting is not merely a decision, it is a lifetime gift of health.

3. Obesity:

It is a well-researched   & known fact that obesity increases the load on all organs equally & sperms structure. The research found that overweight men were 11 % more likely to have a low sperm count and 39 % more likely to have no sperm in their ejaculate. Obese men were 42 % more likely to have a low sperm count than their normal-weight peers and 81 % more likely to produce no sperm.” March 2012 Archives of Internal Medicine.


Obesity can increase the risk of infertility. Male obesity impacts negatively the reproductive potential by not only decreasing sperm quality but also altering the physical and molecular structure of germ cells in the testes. It simply means the effect of obesity is beyond maturation. Such sperms can create many abnormalities in the progeny.


Obesity by and large is an imbalance of energy consumption & energy taken by the body. Dietary modification & exercise helps in this regard. The guidance of a nutritionist is a prime requirement as losing fat without any fatigue is more important.

4. Environmental toxins: avoid them when you can’t control them.

Environmental exposures play an important role in disease orientation & development. In the case of pregnancies, the developing fetus is susceptible to environmental pollutants.

Such factors are, air pollution, tobacco smoke, pesticides, solvents, metals, radiation, water contaminants (disinfection by-products, arsenic, and nitrates) and chemicals (persistent organic pollutants (POPs) greatly impact pregnancy outcomes such as pregnancy loss, stillbirth, fetal growth, preterm birth and congenital anomalies.

Even though, we can’t avoid them fully, knowing how to minimize the exposure is definitely in our hands.

Fatherhood in today’s context is the planning of Physical, mental, and emotional well-being to create the entire generation in partnership with healthy motherhood.

Let’s remember a few points in a nutshell.

• If you and your partner want to start a family, the sooner you start, the better it is

• Being in the healthy BMI range improves your chance of having a healthy baby

• Quit smoking immediately & offer the best health foundation for the baby & family.

• Minimize or avoid exposure to such chemicals at home and workplaces.

Stress affects effects into negative pregnancy outcomes. Let’s perfect the art of living and offer the lifetime gift of a solid foundation to children.

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