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March 25, 2022 adminMenstrual Cycle

The word endometriosis is often uttered with great pain & anxiety. Every case of endometriosis is an enigma and calls for a deeper understanding of causes beyond the symptoms. Clear understanding about the same will raise awareness and reduce suffering. In this blog, we will address endometriosis in the most genuine scientific way.

What is Endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue outside of the uterus resembles the uterine lining (endometrium). Endometriosis can grow on the exterior of your uterus, ovaries, tubes, or even your bladder and intestines. This tissue can irritate the organs it contacts, producing pain and adhesions (scar tissue).

The average wait period for a diagnosis for women is 6.7 years. This prolongs their suffering, which frequently leads to mental health problems.

The difficulty of diagnosis is just one factor that contributes to this delayed diagnosis.

Aside from bias in medical research, it is not unusual for women’s suffering to be underestimated in comparison to men’s.

Let’s Know, More About Endometriosis.

Many women with endometriosis have pelvic or abdominal discomfort, which is worsened by menstrual bleeding or intercourse. Some women have no symptoms. It might be difficult to get pregnant if you have endometriosis. Endometriosis affects 30 to 50 percent of infertile women. Endometriosis can sometimes develop inside your ovary and produce a cyst (endometrioma).

This causes an inflammatory response, which can lead to the formation of scar tissue and the sticking together of pelvic organs. Debilitating pain during menstruation, painful bowel motions, pain while urination, pain during sexual intercourse, and fatigue are just a few of the symptoms. It is also associated with an increased risk of infertility.

Unfortunately, there is no full-proof treatment for endometriosis. Though hormone therapy can help with symptoms, it is also known to have negative side effects. Endometriosis lesions have to be surgically removed, but the risk of relapse can’t be ruled out.

Endometriosis affects 10-15% of all menstruators, according to current statistics. Because of the number of cases that go undiagnosed, this number might be significantly higher. Despite the high frequency, women must wait an average of 6.7 years for a diagnosis. This prolongs their suffering, which frequently leads to mental health problems.

The difficulty of diagnosis is one of several factors that contribute to the delay in diagnosis. There are no blood tests that can be used to diagnose this condition. Doctors can diagnose one with endometriosis based on their symptoms, but a definitive diagnosis requires surgery. Due to their similar symptoms, endometriosis is frequently misdiagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome or appendicitis.

Unlike other endometriotic tissue, this may usually be detected on ultrasound. A surgical procedure known as laparoscopy is the only method to determine if you have endometriosis for sure.

The lack of study using female animal models is one of the key reasons why women’s health concerns are misdiagnosed. Male animals were commonly utilized more than female animals since they were regarded to be less variable due to the lack of monthly hormonal cycles. As a result, the majority of studies favored male subjects.

Research organizations are still debating the ideal mammalian model to use for studying difficulties particular to the female body. Aside from bias in a medical study, it is not unusual for women’s pain to be underestimated in comparison to men’s. This may be linked back to a history of women being labeled as “hysterical” if they complained of pain that wasn’t immediately apparent.

The concept that a displaced uterus was the cause of pain from an unusual, seemingly invisible sickness was first mentioned in ancient Greek texts. This gave rise to the concept of ‘hysteria’ as a mental disorder, paving the way for modern-day women to be informed that their seemingly intangible pain was “all in their heads.”

As a result, it is typical for women’s pain to be ignored or trivialized. In reality, the phrase “gender pain gap” was developed to address discrimination in healthcare, when unconscious bias causes women’s pain to be dismissed as unimportant.

Does Endometriosis Cause Infertility?

If you have endometriosis, becoming pregnant may be more difficult. Women with endometriosis might have infertility in 30 to 50 percent of cases. Endometriosis can affect fertility in a variety of ways, including distorted pelvic anatomy, adhesions, scarred fallopian tubes, inflammation of pelvic structures, immune system dysfunction, changes in the hormonal environment of the eggs, impaired pregnancy implantation, and reduced egg quality.

Your doctor may assign you a “score” based on the quantity, location, and depth of endometriosis. This number defines whether your endometriosis is mild (Stage 2), moderate (Stage 3), or severe (Stage 4). The success of pregnancy is linked to this rating system.

Women with severe (Stage 4) endometriosis, which results in significant scarring, blocked fallopian tubes, and damaged ovaries, have the most difficulties conceiving and usually require advanced reproductive treatment.

How is Endometriosis Treated?

The female hormone estrogen is needed for endometriosis to develop and grow. Birth control pills and other estrogen-lowering or estrogen-blocking medications can help relieve pain symptoms. Medical therapy may be considered for patients who want to get pregnant before attempting to conceive, however, this treatment usually improves pregnancy rates.

If endometriosis is detected during surgery, the endometriosis will be surgically destroyed or removed, as well as the scar tissue. This treatment will return your anatomy to normal and allow your reproductive organs to function normally again. After surgical treatment, your chances of becoming pregnant improve, especially if your endometriosis is moderate or severe.

In individuals hoping to conceive through in vitro fertilization, a mix of surgical and medicinal treatment may be useful (IVF). Overall, each patient’s treatment is very personalized.

As a sufferer of endometriosis, it takes almost five years to receive a correct diagnosis. While some doctors invalidated my pain, others advised them to “get married” and “have children” to deal with it. To most people’s surprise, these experiences in cities like Mumbai and Bangalore. The Rural & urban divide is almost diminished in the case of endometriosis diagnosis & treatment.

However, it’s not all bad news. There has been growing interest in endometriosis research. A brief scan of PubMed, the most widely used scientific research archive, reveals that the number of studies on endometriosis has been rapidly increasing in recent years. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, there were only about 500 articles published every year. This number has risen significantly, with over 2,000 articles published in 2021 alone.

With new research advancing our understanding of the condition, more institutions are employing a multidisciplinary approach to endometriosis treatment. Some endometriosis clinics employ doctors who have completed fellowships in endometriosis surgery. Endometriosis procedures may now be performed in a minimally invasive manner as well, thanks to enhanced infrastructure.

Endometriosis remains unnoticed for two main reasons: lack of awareness and difficulties identifying the disorder. With medical advancements, minor but continuous efforts have been made to address the latter. Female-specific disorders such as endometriosis, however, are still poorly communicated.

Do consult an endometriosis expert to get the right diagnosis & treatment. Early diagnosis can reduce or correct the chances of fertility.


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March 25, 2022 adminMenstrual Cycle

It is said, pain is the language of the body that conveys the battle going on within the body. The body is designed uniquely to tackle the issues on its own but when the situation goes out of control, the body needs external support and help and indicates this by way of pain.

One such condition is Pelvic pain, which affects the lower part of the abdomen, between the belly button and groin. In some people, pelvic pain may manifest as menstrual cramps signifying ovulation. Causes may also include gastrointestinal issues, such as food intolerance. Pelvic pain may indicate more serious issues and proper evaluation is necessary.

Many women experience pelvic discomfort (pain in the lower part of the belly) on occasion, generally during their period. However, if you have daily pelvic pain, it could be a sign of a bigger problem within your bladder, bowels, reproductive organs, or pelvic muscles.

Endometriosis, adhesions, chronic appendicitis, and hernias are just a few of the disorders that cause pelvic pain. Sometimes medication controls the problem; other times surgery may be needed. Your doctor will examine you to identify the nature of the problem and the best course of action.

Your doctor will ask as to whether going to the restroom, walking, sitting, climbing stairs, or driving a car causes you pain. If you experience pain while engaging in these activities, it could be an issue with your bladder, bowels, or the muscles in your pelvis, hips, or lower back.

By pressing on these muscle areas your doctor may be able to determine exactly where the pain is originating. Problems such as endometriosis can cause pain because there may be tissue growth from the endometriosis on different organs within and outside of the pelvic cavity, which includes the ovaries, bladder, behind the uterus, and bowel.

Some doctors may suspect these problems during a pelvic exam & treatments are planned accordingly.

Conservative treatment means treatment without performing surgery. Depending upon the cause, your doctor may first try to treat your pelvic pain with medication. If you have endometriosis that may not work and you may be given medications that take away the estrogen in your body, therefore placing you in a short-term, menopause-like state. Endometriosis implants and pain can be reduced by lowering estrogen levels in the body.

Diagnostic Laparoscopy:

Laparoscopy is a type of minimally invasive surgery that is performed with a telescope that is attached to a camera (laparoscope). The laparoscope is inserted into one of three to four small incisions made in your belly. During laparoscopic surgery, your doctor will be able to view your pelvic organs to see if they, or any other conditions, are contributing to your pain. Endometriosis, adhesions (scar tissue), appendicitis (appendix infection), or a hernia are some of the diseases your doctor may identify.

Finding out that everything is normal might sometimes be useful in deciding what treatment to follow.

The two most common problems that can be treated with laparoscopy are endometriosis and pelvic adhesions.

  • Endometriosis can cause discomfort in the pelvis on a regular basis, as well as painful periods and pain during bowel movements or intercourse. Endometriosis can also make it difficult to become pregnant. Your doctor will use an electric current or a laser to try to remove the endometrial tissue that is seen during your laparoscopy. Treatment will help to decrease or eliminate the symptoms.
  • Pelvic adhesions (scar tissue): Adhesions in and around the pelvic cavity may form if you have endometriosis, a pelvic infection, surgery on your pelvis, a cyst on an ovary, or have had surgery on your pelvis. Organs that are normally separated from one another become connected due to scar tissue. Pelvic discomfort might not usually require medical attention. However, if a person suspects an infection is causing pelvic discomfort, if they have unexpected vaginal bleeding and severe pain, or if they have a known illness and suffer rapid changes in pain, they should consult a doctor.

If a person with pelvic discomfort develops a fever, nausea, or vomiting, they should consult a doctor. A doctor will conduct a comprehensive evaluation and assist in the development of an appropriate treatment plan.


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February 23, 2022 adminMenstrual Cycle

Are you bothered about the school-going daughters getting menstruations? It’s a whole new experience for every episode of periods. Parents tend to be extra cautious about the movement, pain, dresses they wear, and many questions as a family we, need to address.

Let’s touch upon this one by one:

Is Menstrual Blood the same as Normal Blood?

Menstrual blood is made up of blood and a membrane from the uterus. If we don’t get pregnant during our cycle, the membrane that was created to support the possibly fertilized egg slowly departs our body. Sometimes blood can appear clotted or brown, but that is all normal.

While period blood is made up of normal blood, it is not the same as the blood we get when we get a cut, thus there is no reason to be afraid of menstrual blood.

Does Menstrual Blood Smell Bad?

Sometimes there can be a bad smell due to bacteria that grow in underpants’ moist, warm environment. Changing the pad regularly (once every 3-5 hours, or whenever the pad is full) will help keep bad smells away and reduce the risk of infection.

Are Cramps Normal?

Yes. We may get abdominal cramping and a heavy feeling. Cramps occur when our uterus contracts to get rid of menstrual blood. Our breasts can also feel heavy and tender. Light exercise, hot water bottles, and warm baths can all help to reduce the effects of cramps. If the pain gets worse please visit a nearby health specialist.

What is Vaginal Discharge?

It is normal for us to have discharge during our menstrual cycle. Discharge can be clear or yellowish. Discharge is protective because it can stop bacterial from entering our vagina.  discharge changes to a strange color, or becomes smelly, that can mean that we have an infection and need to go have a check-up at a health facility.

Let’s Find Out the Best Ways to Manage the Periods:

Be prepared; keep disposable or reusable pads handy to absorb blood. Disposable pads are available in a variety of types, including those with wings, thin pads, and thick pads. There are also material pads that you can wash and reuse. It’s important to use the one that seems the most comfortable to you.

Change your pad one every 3 to 5 hours, and more regularly if needed. Always keep spare pads in your school bag, even if it’s not time for your period. It is better to be prepared, especially at school.

After using the toilet or changing pads, wash your hands with soap and water.

Wash the vagina during bathing, while changing pads with water & soap. Use a calendar to mark your menstrual cycle so that you can predict your next menstruation.

To avoid infection, wipe the vaginal area from front to back. Don’t put perfume, cream or other products on the vagina. If you notice a change like discharge a weird colour or funny smell, or the vagina feels itchy or hot, make sure you go for a consultation with the gynaecologist in case you have an infection.

What to do When You Are Scared of Staining?

Most girls experience this at least once in a lifetime. If you have a jacket, you can tie it around your waist to hide the stain. You may twist your skirt over so the stain is on the side if you don’t have a jacket. That way, no one will notice. Then, change your pad quickly so no more blood leaks. To prevent this from happening, it’s important to change pads regularly and always carry spare pads in your bag.

Carry dark coloured large scarfs to wrap around, take the help of peers to help you out in this regard.


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Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common gynaecological complaint associated with considerable morbidity and significantly affects the patient’s family, personal and social life. Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle & occurs in absence of pregnancy.

It is a common gynaecological complaint accounting for one-third of outpatient visits to a gynaecologist. It is caused by a wide variety of organic or non-organic causes. An organic cause is a term used to describe any health condition in which there is an observable and measurable disease process, such as inflammation or tissue damage.

Non-organic causes are the one that shows the symptoms but whose disease process is either unknown or unable to be measured by current scientific means.

To understand better, let’s talk about, what is normal bleeding. This is appropriate for reproductive-age women (menarche to menopause), with bleeding occurring every 21 to 35 days, lasting 3-7 days, and a blood flow of 35 ml.

Bleeding from the vaginal area between periods is one of the signs of this illness. Extremely excessive bleeding during periods can also be caused by abnormal uterine haemorrhage. Menorrhagia is a condition that arises when severe bleeding continues for more than 7 days during periods or otherwise.

Polyps or fibroids, which are abnormal growths in the uterus, can cause AUB. AUB can also be caused by a cervical infection, a thyroid condition, or uterine cancer, among other causes. Hormone imbalance is also the known cause of heavy bleeding.

The disorder is called dysfunctional uterine haemorrhage when abnormal bleeding develops as a result of hormone imbalance. Dysfunctional uterine haemorrhage is more common in teenagers and women approaching menopause.

Treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding is determined by the patient’s age, the reason of the bleeding, and whether or not she wishes to become pregnant in the future. The different treatment options include the use of an intrauterine device, birth control pills, D&C (dilatation and curettage), endometrial ablation and hysterectomy.

There are many causes for abnormal uterine bleeding and that exactly defines the difference between abnormal uterine bleeding and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

In both cases, menstrual bleeding and related symptoms exist but the causes are different. In case of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, it is directly linked to hormonal imbalances.

Treatment Options Available for AUB:

  • Intrauterine device (IUD): An intrauterine device (IUD) is a tiny plastic device that is put into a woman’s uterus through the vaginal canal. Hormones released by the IUD assist to prevent irregular bleeding.
  • Using birth control pills: They prevent the lining of the uterus from getting too thick & help to regularize the menstrual cycle and even reduce cramping.
  • D&C or dilatation and curettage procedure: The opening of the cervix is expanded so that a surgical instrument may be put into the uterus in the D&C or dilatation and curettage process. With the use of this instrument, the uterine lining is scraped away. The doctor then checks the removed lining for any abnormality and determines the cause of the abnormal bleeding. D&C is used to identify the source of bleeding.
  • Hysterectomy: It is a surgical treatment that involves the removal of the uterus. It prevents the patient from having any further periods and from becoming pregnant. It is normally performed under general anaesthesia and requires a person to stay at a hospital.
  • Endometrial ablation: This treatment removes the uterine lining rather than the uterus itself. As a result of the surgery, all forms of monthly bleeding are stopped.
  • Simple measures to cope up with: Abnormal uterine bleeding which arises as a result of any abnormality in the menstrual cycle and is most common. In the vast majority of cases, it can resolve itself without the need for therapy. Self-care methods and home remedies can also aid with the condition’s treatment.

Natural Ways to Reduce the Troubles Associated with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding?

  • The use of menstruation cups is one example of a lifestyle modification.
  • Use of heating pads which can ease the symptoms like abdominal cramps and severe pain.
  • Using period panties, for dry pad feeling, which offer sleep comfort.
  • Proper and adequate rest, Adequate hydration
  • Breathing exercises and yoga are good examples of regular exercises. These have a calming effect.
  • Consumption of adequate iron, vitamin C, and other minerals and vitamins supplements.
  • Even when a person can manage their heavy flow, it is still best to consult a doctor, who will investigate and identify any underlying issues. This can assist to lessen the flow’s intensity and duration. The menstrual bleeding disorder has a impact on other bodily functions. Right diagnosis &treatment is the key.
  • Take home points: Irrespective of any age group, menstrual disorders should not be taken lightly proper medical diagnosis & treatment not only offer relief but also reduce the future complications if any.

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January 12, 2022 adminFertility

Fertility changes with age. In women, this is very conspicuous and the window period of fertility is much smaller than in men. Males & Females attain fertility with the onset of puberty. For girls, fertility begins with the onset of ovulation and menstruation and ceases with the onset of menopause. Women can no longer conceive naturally after menopause, according to common belief.

In today’s scenario, age-related infertility is more common due to various reasons. Many women prefer to concentrate on a career for financial security and wait until their 30s to begin their families. Women take care of themselves better, so are far healthier & more updated about information available.

In general, women’s reproductive potential declines as they age, and fertility usually ends 5 to 10 years before menopause.

SIGNIFICANCE OF OVULATION AND THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE IN FERTILITY

During their reproductive years, women have regular monthly menstrual periods because they ovulate regularly monthly. Eggs mature inside fluid-filled spheres in the ovaries – called “follicles.” When a woman has her period at the beginning of her menstrual cycle, a hormone released in the pituitary gland (located in the brain) promotes a number of follicles on both ovaries to develop faster. The pituitary hormone that stimulates the ovaries is named FSH (FSH). Normally, only one of those follicles will reach maturity and release an egg (ovulate); the remainder gradually will stop growing and degenerate. Pregnancy results if the egg gets fertilized and gets attached to the lining of the uterus. If pregnancy doesn’t occur, the endometrium is shed because conception hasn’t occurred and we say that the cycle has begun again.

In their early teens, girls often have irregular ovulation leading to irregular menstrual cycles, but by age 16 they ought to have established regular ovulation leading to regular periods. From 26 to 35 days, a woman’s periods will be regular until her late 30s or early 40s, when they will get shorter. As time passes, she is going to begin to skip ovulation leading to missed periods.

Ultimately, periods get prolonged or become infrequent until they cease completely. When a lady has not had a menstrual period for 1 full year, she is claimed to be in menopause. Fertility falls as women age due to natural, age-related changes in the ovaries. A woman is born with all of the egg-containing follicles in her ovaries that she will ever have, unlike men, who continue to produce sperm throughout their lives.

At birth, there are about one million follicles. By puberty – about 300,000. Only around 300 of the follicles left at puberty will be ovulated during the reproductive years. The majority of follicles are not used up by ovulation and are eventually lost due to atresia, a degenerative process that happens independently of a woman’s condition, such as pregnancy, normal periods, being on birth control pills, or being treated for infertility. Menopause appears to occur one year earlier in smokers than in non-smokers.

FERTILITY IN THE AGING FEMALE:

In her 20s, a woman’s reproductive years are at their maximum. Fertility gradually declines within the 30s, particularly after age 35. A healthy, fertile 30-year-old woman has a 20% chance of becoming pregnant each month she tries. That means that just 20 out of every 100 fertile 30-year-old women who try to conceive in one cycle will succeed, with the remaining 80 having to try again. By age 40, a woman’s chance is smaller than 5% per cycle, so fewer than 5 out of each 100 women are expected to achieve success monthly.

Women do not remain fertile until menopause. The average age for menopause is 47, but most women cannot have successful pregnancies in their mid-40s. These percentages are true for natural conception also as conception using fertility treatment, including in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Much misleading information is spread through the media, which often misinterprets the age impact and an attempt is made to make patients believe that fertility treatments such as IVF are the easiest way to get pregnant. The natural process of conception, as well as assisted techniques for pregnancy, are greatly affected by age. Great nutritional status, as well as the solid foundation of financial security, does not reverse the biological clock.

The success rate of infertility treatments is affected by a woman’s age. The age-related loss of female fertility happens because both the standard and therefore the number of eggs gradually decline.

FERTILITY IN THE AGING MALE:

Unlike a woman’s first reduction in fertility, a man’s sperm characteristics fall considerably later. Sperm quality deteriorates as men age, although it usually does not become a problem until a guy is in his 60s. Changes in fertility and sexual functioning do occur in men as they get older.

Despite these changes, the ability to father a child even in the 60s and 70s with a younger partner is possible

Men’s testes decrease and get softer as they age, and sperm morphology (shape) and motility (movement) tend to indicate no. There is a slightly higher risk of genetic defects of sperms, happening during DNA fragmentation.

Any illness like diabetes, BP adversely affect their sexual and reproductive function. Not all men, especially those who maintain their health over time, have major changes in reproductive or sexual functioning as they age.

Improved health status does not interfere with the natural age-related decline in fertility. It’s critical to realise that a woman’s fertility decreases as she ages due to the natural decrease in the amount of eggs left in her ovaries as she ages. This decline may happen much before most girls expect.

While addressing infertility age is the main contributing factor. There are other contributing factors like ovulation disorders, hormonal imbalances, tubal defects, varicocele, infection & uterine fibroids to name a few.


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